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عبدالقادر الضو عبدالله
عبدالقادر الضو عبدالله

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Ilm ul Kalam: A Book by Allama Shibli Nomani


Ilm ul Kalam is a book written by Allama Shibli Nomani, a renowned scholar of Urdu and Persian literature. The book is about the history and development of the Islamic theology and philosophy, known as Kalam. The book covers various topics such as the sources of Kalam, the schools of Kalam, the debates and controversies among the theologians, and the impact of Kalam on other sciences and arts. The book also includes biographies of some prominent figures of Kalam, such as Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Ashari, Imam Maturidi, Imam Ghazali, and Imam Razi.


The book was first published in 1916 and was later revised and expanded by the author in 1922. The book is considered as one of the most comprehensive and authoritative works on the subject of Kalam in Urdu language. The book is available online for free download from various sources[^1^] [^2^] [^3^]. The book is also available in print form from various publishers.The Importance of Ilm ul Kalam


Ilm ul Kalam is not only a historical or academic discipline, but also a practical and relevant one for Muslims today. Ilm ul Kalam helps Muslims to understand and articulate their faith in a rational and coherent manner. It also helps them to respond to the challenges and questions posed by other ideologies and worldviews. Ilm ul Kalam enables Muslims to appreciate the diversity and richness of Islamic thought and to avoid blind imitation or fanaticism. Ilm ul Kalam also fosters a spirit of dialogue and tolerance among Muslims and with other faith communities.


Ilm ul Kalam is based on the sources of Islamic revelation, namely the Quran and the Sunnah, as well as the use of reason and logic. It does not contradict or oppose the teachings of Islam, but rather explains and defends them. Ilm ul Kalam is not a rigid or dogmatic science, but rather an open and dynamic one that evolves with the changing times and circumstances. Ilm ul Kalam is not a monopoly of any sect or group, but rather a common heritage of all Muslims who seek to understand and live by their faith.The Main Schools of Ilm ul Kalam


Ilm ul Kalam is not a monolithic or uniform science, but rather a diverse and dynamic one that reflects the different perspectives and approaches of various Muslim scholars and groups. Throughout the history of Islam, several schools of Ilm ul Kalam emerged and developed, each with its own distinctive features and contributions. Some of the most important and influential schools of Ilm ul Kalam are:


Mu'tazilah: This school was founded by Wasil ibn Ata in the second century AH. It is known for its emphasis on rationalism, free will, divine justice, and human responsibility. It also advocated the doctrine of al-tawhid al-'af'ali, which means that God is the only agent and creator of all actions. The Mu'tazilah also held that the Quran is created and not eternal, and that God cannot be seen in this world or the hereafter. The Mu'tazilah had a significant impact on Islamic theology, philosophy, jurisprudence, and exegesis.


Asha'irah: This school was founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari in the third century AH. It is known for its emphasis on revelation, predestination, divine power, and human incapacity. It also advocated the doctrine of al-tawhid al-sifati, which means that God has attributes that are distinct from His essence. The Asha'irah also held that the Quran is eternal and not created, and that God can be seen by the believers in the hereafter. The Asha'irah had a significant impact on Islamic theology, jurisprudence, exegesis, and mysticism.


Shi'ah: This school is based on the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (s) and his family (a), who are considered as the rightful successors and guides of the Muslim community. It is known for its emphasis on imamah, wilayah, 'ismah, bada', and taqiyyah. It also advocated the doctrine of al-tawhid al-'ibadi, which means that God is the only one worthy of worship and obedience. The Shi'ah also held that the Quran is




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